1. Scientific Method: a series of steps that scientists follow in order to answer a question or solve a problem
2. Hypothesis: an educated guess that can be tested through an experiment.
3. Independent Variable: The variable that is changed or controlled by the scientist
4. Dependent Variable: The variable that might change because of what the scientist changes - what is being measured
5. Observation: using your 5 senses to gather data about your surroundings
6. Inference: when you make an assumption or prediction about something you observe
7. Control: the part of the experiment that the scientist doesn't change or add the variable to
8. Constant: something the scientist makes sure stays the same throughout the experiment
1. Motion: A change in position
2. Newton’s 1st Law of Motion: An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
3.Inertia: The resistance an object has to a change in its state of motion. Also known as Newton’s 1st law of motion.
4.Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion: Acceleration depends on the object’s mass and on the net force acting on the object. F= M x A (Force = Mass x Acceleration)
5. Acceleration: The rate at which velocity changes.
6. Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
7. Speed: The distance an object travels per unit of time.
8. Constant Speed: Speed does not increase or decrease but remains fixed over time.
9. Velocity: Speed in a given direction.
10. Direction: The line or course on which something is moving or is aimed to move or along which something is pointing or facing.
11. Position: The point or area occupied by a physical object.
12. Reference Point: Is a place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion.
13. Distance: The degree or amount of separation between two points.
14. Slope: The steepness of a line or object. The formula for calculating slope is: Slope= Rise/ Run
15. Force: Forces is a push or pull acting on an object. Forces act in pairs.
16. Balanced Force: When the net force on an object is zero. There will be no change in the motion of the object. The object is either at rest or maintaining at a constant speed.
BALANCED AND UNBALANCED FORCES
17. Unbalanced Force: When the net force on an object is greater than zero. There will be a change in the motion of the object. An object at rest will begin to move, while an object already moving will change its speed and or direction.
18. Magnetic Force: Force of attraction or repulsion exerted by a magnet.
19. Gravity: Usually defined as the force of attraction between two masses.
20. Centripetal Force: A force that makes a body follows a curved path.
21. Equilibrium: A state of rest or balance due to opposite forces acting equally.
22. Friction: A force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching.
23. Momentum: Can be defined as mass in motion. All objects have mass so if an object is moving then it has momentum.
TYPES OF ENERGY, LAW OF CONSERVATION, ENERGY TRANSFORMATION
24. Energy: Anything that has the ability to make matter move or change. The ability to do work.
25. Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Energy changes from one form to another. The total energy of an object never changes.
26. Energy Transformation: The process of changing energy from one form to another
27. Potential Energy: Energy that is stored in a system. It is energy that can be released to become kinetic or another form of energy.
28. Kinetic Energy: The energy an object has because of its motion. Kinetic energy depends upon the mass and velocity of an object.
29. Mechanical Energy: The energy an object has because of its motion or position ie the total amount of kinetic and potential energy in a system.
30. Electrical Energy: Energy caused by the movement of charged particles (Electrons). Easily transported through power lines and can be converted to other forms of energy.
31. Chemical Energy: Energy that is available for release from chemical reactions.
32. Nuclear Energy: Energy that is stored in the nucleus of an atom.
33. Green Energy: Energy that comes from sources that do not pollute the earth.
34. Thermal Energy: The energy a substance has related to its temperature. The faster molecules move the more thermal energy they create. In every energy transfer – some energy is changed to thermal or heat energy.
35. Radiant Energy: The form of energy related to the movement of light, electromagnetic waves, or particles.
36. Sound Energy: Energy created by the vibration of a material
37. Inclined Plane:is a flat supporting surface tilted at an angle, with one end higher than the other
38. Pulley:a wheel with a grooved rim around which a cord passes. It acts to change the direction of a force applied to the cord and is mainly used to raise heavy weights.
39. Lever: A rigid bar resting on a pivot, used to help move a heavy or firmly fixed load with one end when pressure is applied to the other
40. Wheel and Axle:
41 Mechanical Advantage:the ratio of the force produced by a machine to the force applied to it
42. Screw: A modified version of an inclined plane which has a helical thread wrapped around a cylinder
43. Wedge:a piece of wood, metal, or some other material having one thick end and tapering to a thin edge, that is driven between two objects or parts of an object to secure or separate them
44. Compound Machine: a machine consisting of two or more simple machines working together.
45. Simple Machine: A device that is used to make work easier
46. Series Circuit: A closed circuit in which current only follows one path.
47. Parallel Circuit: A closed circuit in which current follows multiple paths
48. Closed Circuit: A complete electrical connection or path along which current flows.
Atmosphere and Weather Unit - 2nd Quarter
1. Air Pressure:the force exerted by air, whether compressed or unconfined, on any surface in contact with it.
2. Altitude:the height of anything above a reference level, especially above sea level on earth
3. Atmosphere:The gaseous mass or envelope surrounding a celestial body, especially the one surrounding the earth, and retained by the celestial body's gravitational field. The air or climate in a specific place.
4. Composition:The combining of distinct parts or elements to form a whole. The manner in which such parts are combined or related
5. Density:Density is mass divided by volume. It is the measure how much mass there is per volume
6. Ozone:a form of oxygen, O 3 , with a peculiar odor suggesting that of weak chlorine, produced when an electric spark or ultraviolet light is passed through air or oxygen. It is found in the troposphere after a thunderstorm or during periods of high temperature.
7. Ozone Layer:a layer of O 3 in the atmosphere In the upper atmosphere, it absorbs ultraviolet rays, thereby preventing them from reaching the surface of the earth.
8.Troposphere:Layer of the atmosphere nearest to Earth, where weather occurs, temperature drops as altitude increases, where people live, known as lower layer of atmosphere.
9.Stratosphere:where most jets fly, where the ozone layer is found, atmosphere is drier, ozone here absorbs and scatters UV radiation
10. Mesosphere:called the middle atmosphere, it is the coldest layer of the atmosphere, radio waves are reflected to Earth and meteors burn up in this layer, temperature continues to decrease with altitude
11. Thermosphere: 4th layer of the tmosphere, temperatures can be very hot in this layer, known as upper atmosphere, temperature increases with altitude- it is , aurora lights occur here, this layer contains the ionosphere.
12. Ionosphere-the layer of the earth's atmosphere that contains a high concentration of ions and free electrons and is able to reflect radio waves. This is found in the thermosphere and contributes to why it get hot in that layer.
13. Evaporation: The process of a liquid changing into a gas
14. Hydrosphere: All of the Earth's water that is cycling within the water cycle.
15. Meteorologist: A scientist who studies the atmosphere, weather and climate
16. Precipitation: Any type of liquid or solid water that falls to Earth's surface.
17. Run Off: Water that flows across the surface of the Earth.
18. Transpiration: The process of water evaporating from the leaves of plants during photosynthesis.
19. Water Cycle: The repeating processes that move water in different forms between Earth's surface and the atmosphere
20. Water vapor: Water in the atmosphere that is in the form of a gas.
21. Weather: The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place
22. Temperature:a measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or substance with reference to some standard value.
23. Condensation: The process of a gas changing into a liquid
24. Weather patterns: Weather that repeats itself in a predictable way.
25. Dew Point: The temperature at which water vapor will start to condense out of the air as liquid water.
26. Humidity: The amount of water vapor in the air
27. Air mass: a huge body of air that forms over a region characterizing it with a similar temperature, humidity and pressure at any given height.
28. Cold front: is defined as the leading edge of a cooler air mass, replacing or overtaking a warmer air mass.
29. Front: is the boundary separating 2 or more different types of air masses.
30. High pressure system is an area where the atmospheric pressure is greater than the rest of the atmosphere.
31. Low pressure system is an area where the atmospheric pressure is lowest compared to the surrounding area. Storms like tropical cyclones are called low-pressure cells.
32. Occluded front is formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front and in the process "cuts off" the warm front from contact with the ground.
33. Stationary front is a boundary between two different air masses, neither of which is strong enough to replace the other.
34. Warm front is defined as the leading edge of a warm air mass overtaking a cooler, slower air mass.
35. Convection: heat transfer within the atmosphere involving the upward movement of huge volumes of warm air, leading to condensation and cloud formation
36. Jet Stream: a fairly narrow zone of very strong winds in the upper troposphere
37. Coriolis Effect: the observed deflection of something relative to the surface of Earth, caused by Earth's rotation beneath the object
38. Alto: A word prefix meaning mid altitude
39. Cirro: A word prefix meaning high altitude
40. Cirrus: The type of cloud formed from ice crystals at high altitudes
41. Cumulo: A work prefix meaning "heaped"
42. Cumulus: A type of cloud that is puffy or heaped in appearance, has distinct edges
43. Nimbo: A word prefix meaning rain
44. Nimbus: A word suffix meaning rain-ex.cumulonimbus
45. Stratus: the type of cloud forms in horizontal layers and blankets the sky
46. Fog: Clouds that form at the surface of the Earth.
47. Ground Water: Water that has infiltrated (sunk) into the ground.
48. Storm is any disturbance in the atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather marked by strong wind, thunder, lightning, and heavy precipitation.
49. Storm surge is an offshore rise of water caused primarily by high winds pushing on the ocean's surface which force the water to pile up higher than the ordinary sea level.
51. Thunder is a sonic shock wave (sonic boom) created from the rapid expansion & explosion of the air molecules surrounding and within a bolt of lightning, due to increases in pressure and temperature.
52. Thunderstorm, is a weather phenomena that results from the rapid upward movement of warm, moist air inside air masses or at fronts and are characterized by the presence of cumulonimbus clouds, lightning, thunder, and different types of precipitation.
53. Tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
54. Tropical cyclone is a storm system that develops over large bodies of warm water at specific temperatures and is characterized by a large low-pressure center surrounded by numerous rotating thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain which can also produce high waves, damaging storm surge, as well as spawning tornadoes.
55. Typhoon is the name given to a tropical cyclone that typically forms in the western Pacific & Indian Oceans.
56. Hurricane is another name for a tropical cyclone that typically forms in the Atlantic Ocean.
57. Lightning is an electrostatic discharge or the sudden and momentary flow of electric charge through the atmosphere between the clouds and the ground.
3rd Quarter CELLS
1. Protists a kingdom of living organisms that are eukaryotic and can not be classified as animals, plants, or fungus.
2. Pseudopods "false feet" a unicellular organism uses a foot like extension - it is used for motion
3. Amoebae a unicellular life form characterized by an irregular shape and moves using pseudopods.
4. Euglena is a protist that is both animal-like, and plant-like. They contain chlorophyll and can make their own food like an autotroph, and they can also ingest food from their surroundings like a heterotroph.
5. Paramecium a group of unicellular protozoa which mainly move by the use of cilia
6. Phagocytosis is the cellular process of engulfing solid particles by reshaping the cell membrane.
7. Volvox is a type of green algae that form spherical colonies of up to 50,000 cells that live in a variety of freshwater habitats.
8. Algae: Eukaryotic plant-like protists that can be unicellular or multicellular, contain chlorophyll, and provide over half of the world's oxygen supply
9. Protozoa are a diverse group of unicellular, eukaryotic organisms, many of which are motile.
10 Sporozoa: a fungus-like protist that reproduces by the use of spores.
11. Diatoms: unicellular plant-like autotrophs. They are a group of algae that come in a variety of shapes and contain silica in their cell walls.
12. Flagellum (flagella) are "tail-like " structure attached to the outer membrane of some cells specialized for locomotion or movement.
12. Unicellular organisms are single-celled.
13. Eukaryotes are cellular organisms that contain nuclei.
14. Prokaryotes are cellular organisms that lack a nucleus.
15. Cilium (cilia) are "hair-like" structures that outer membrane of some cells specialized for locomotion or movement..
15.Cell Basic unit of structure and function in living things. It is the basic building block of life
16. Heterotrophs are organisms that cannot make their own food.
17. Autotrophs are organisms that make their own food.
18. Multicellular organisms are composed of many cells.
19. Cytoplasm is a gel-like substance residing between the cell membrane holding all the cell's organelles, except for the nucleus.
20. Cell Membrane-Found in plant and animal cells. Its functions include protection, support, and controlling themovement of substances in and out of the cell (osmosis, diffusion, active transport)
21. Golgi Body-It is named after Camillo Golgi, who discovered its presence in cells in 1898. It has a structure that looks like a flattened collection of sacs and tubes like a stack of pancakes. These structures can be thought of as the cell's mailroom. They receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell or outside of the cell.
22. Lysosome: Usually only found in animal cells. They are small round structures involved in the digestive activities of the cell. They contain enzymes that break down food molecules into usable substances which are passed on to the mitochondria. They also digest old cell parts, recycling the components so they can be used again - the clean up crew
*Found in plant and animal cells
*This is the "power house" of the cell - where energy is produced
*The site of cellular respiration - food and oxygen are combined in the mitochondria of a cell to produce energy which is stored as ATP. Energy is released when an ATP molecule is broken apart.
*More active cells have more mitochondria
* Found in plant and animal cells
*The control center of the cell - directs all cell activities
*Contains chromosomes which are made of chromatin which is composed of DNA (nucleic acids) - these structures are the "blueprints" of life (instructions for all of the organisms' characteristics)
*Contains the Nucleolus - a small round structure that makes ribosomes
*Surrounded by the nuclear membrane (nuclear envelope) - this is very similar in structure to the cell membrane.
25. Ribosome (Free or Bound)
* Found in plant and animal cells
*Small round structures found on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and floating around in the cytoplasm.
*These are the protein factories of the cell - This is where amino acids are combined to make the proteins our bodies need to survive
26. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
* Found in plant and animal cells
* A maze of tubular passageways throughout the cell
* The transportation system for the cell - helps to move substances through the cytoplasm (thick jelly-like substance that the organelles float in) of the cell.
*There are two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum - rough and smooth,
*The rough Endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached to its surface.
27. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
*Found in plant and animal cells
* A maze of tubular passageways throughout the cell
*The transportation system for the cell - helps to move substances through the cytoplasm (thick jelly-like substance that the organelles float in) of the cell.
*There are two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum - rough and smooth,
*The smooth one does not have ribosomes attached to its surface.
28. Vacuoles: Found in plant and animal cells - BUT there is only one large vacuole in plant cells, and animal cells have a few little ones. These are the storage tanks for the cell - they store water, food, waste, enzymes, etc.
29. Nuclear Envelope - Double lipid bilayer, which is a physical barrier, separating the contents of the nucleus. Nuclear pores are in the nuclear envelope, which regulate the exchange of materials.
30. Nucleolus - This is the site where ribosomes are produced. Ribosomes are involved in the protein-making process in the cell.
31. Cell Wall
*It gives protection and support.
*It is found in plant cells
* It is not found in animal cells
* Found in plant cells only
*These are green structures that are the site of photosynthesis (the process plants use to produce food).
*They contain chlorophyll which is a green pigment (makes plants green).
33. Chromatin: Chromatin is the combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell.
34. Chromosome: They are found in the nucleus. They direct the production of proteins in the cell and are responsible for cell growth and reproduction.
* A process by which substances (other than water) move from a higher concentration of that substance
*No energy needed
*Example: a bottle of perfume is opened in a room
36. Active Transport
Use energy to "carry" substances into a cell
One method of active transport is to pick up the substance outside the cell and pull it through the cell membrane.
*Diffusion of water through a membrane
*No energy needed
*The movement of water from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
*Example: celery stay crisper when stored in water in the refrigerator
38. Hierarchy - The arrangement of a particular set of items that are represented as being "above," "below," or "at the same level as" one another.
39. Organelles: A structure within a cell that carries out the various processes necessary for a cell to function properly.
40. Specialized Cell: is a type of cell that performs a specific function in multicellular organisms. Groups of specialized cells work together to form a tissue
41. Tissue: a group of cells from the same origin that together carry out a specific function.
42. Organs - A collection of tissues joined into a structural unit that serves a common function.
43. Organ System: Two or more organs working together in the execution of a specific body function.
44. Organism - A life form such as animal, fungus, micro-organism, or plant that in some form is capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth, development and maintenance of homeostasis.
Genetics Unit 3rd Quarter
LINK TO GENETICS VOCAB FROM CLASS TODAY
Genetics: The scientific study of heredity.
Heredity: The passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring.
Traits: the different forms of a characteristic
Alleles - The different forms of a gene.
Asexual reproduction - A form of reproduction in which a new organism is created from a single parent and inherits the genes of that parent only.
Binary Fission -Binary fission is the subdivision of a cell into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into two separate cells.
Budding- A form of asexual reproduction in which a new organism grows on another one. The new organism remains attached as it grows, separating from the parent organism only when it is mature. The newly created organism is a clone and is genetically identical to the parent organism.
Dominant Allele -An allele, form of a gene, whose trait always shows up in an organism when the allele is present and working correctly.
Egg Cell -The "female" sex cell; contains 1⁄2 the genetic information of the female parent.
Fertilization -The process in which the sex cells of different organisms of the same species combine to produce a new organism.
Gamete -A cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually; also known as the sex cells.
Gene -A gene is the set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific protein.
Recessive Allele -An allele, form of a gene, whose trait is masked when a dominant allele is present and working correctly.
Sexual reproduction -A form of reproduction in which a new organism is created by combining the genetic material of two organisms of the same or similar genetic species.
Sperm Cell -The "male" sex cell; contains 1⁄2 the genetic information of the male parent.
Adenine -Nitrogen base that pairs with Thymine in DNA and Uracil when found in RNA.
Amino Acid -A small molecule that is linked chemically in ribosomes to other amino acids to form proteins.
Cell Cycle -The series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division and duplication.
Chromosome -A double rod of condensed chromatin; contains DNA that carries genetic information.
Cytokinesis -The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the 2 new cells and a new cellular membrane forms around each new cell.
Cytosine -Nitrogen base that only pairs with Guanine when found in DNA and RNA.
DNA -Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism creates proteins and is passed from parent to offspring.
Guanine -Nitrogen base that only pairs with Cytosine when found in DNA and RNA.
Interphase -The 1st stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs.
Mitosis -The stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into 2 new nuclei and 1 copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.
mRNA -RNA molecule that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message to ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
Nitrogen base pair -A nitrogen-containing molecule that are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.
Replication -The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus.
Thymine -Nitrogen base that only pairs with Adenine when found in DNA.
tRNA -RNA molecule found in the cytoplasm of a cell that carries amino acids to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain.
Genome is a cell’s total hereditary endowment or the entire genetic code (DNA) found within the nucleus of a cell.
– It takes place inside the somatic cells of humans with the exception of red blood cells & certain nerve cells.
Somatic cells are all the body’s cells except the reproductive cells; egg & sperm. Somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes.
Chromosomes are condensed chromatin into double rods (chromatids) of genetic material.
Chromatin The mass of very long, thin fibers of DNA & proteins that are found unwound within the nucleus.
Human Body Systems Unit - 3rd Quarter
Reproductive System: The system of organs involved with animal and human reproduction, especially sexual reproduction.
- Ovary- Produces eggs in females
- Vagina- The passageway through which a baby travels at birth.
- Fallopian Tubes- Eggs travel through these to reach the womb.
- Uterus- A hollow organ made of muscle in which fertilized eggs develop.
- Hormones- Control the menstrual and are produced by the endocrine system.
- Estrogen- A type of hormone that is produced by ovaries and trigger the development of female characteristics such as body hair.
- Progesterone- Same as estrogen.
- Ovulation- The release of a mature egg from the ovary.
- Zygote- When egg cell and sperm cell first join and lasts about 4 days.
- Embryo- When zygote attaches itself to the uterus wall it becomes an embryo. It is called an embryo for the next 8 weeks
- Fetus- After the next 8 weeks, the embryo becomes a fetus. It is the size of a walnut and possess human- like features.
- Amniotic Sac- A bag of fluid found in the uterus in which babies develop in.
- Placenta- An organ that develops during pregnancy which outlines the uterus and envelops the fetus. Provides oxygen and nutrients to baby and allows for waste to be expelled.
- Testes- The primary organ that produces sperm cells.
- Penis- An external organ in which sperm cells and urine travel through
- Scrotum- The sac the holds the testes.
- Testosterone- A male hormone which triggers the development of male characteristics.
- Infancy- From birth to 2 yrs. During this time mental and muscular skills develop.
- Childhood- From 2- 13 yrs. During this time muscular, language, and learning skills develop.
- Adolescence- From 13-20 yrs. Puberty begins during this stage.
- Adulthood- From 20 yrs to death. Women between the ages of 40-60 go through menopause in which they can no longer reproduce.
1. Respiratory System - A system that interacts with the environment and with other body systems to bring oxygen to the body and remove carbon dioxide
2. Trachea - The tube connecting the mouth to the bronchial tubes that carries air to the lungs; also called the windpipe.
3. Larynx -A muscular structure at the top of the trachea, containing the vocal cords (voice box).
4. Bronchi -Either of the two main branches of the trachea that lead to the lungs, where they divide into smaller branches.
5. Bronchioles -The bronchi is further divided into smaller branches
6. Alveoli -Any of the tiny air-filled sacs arranged in clusters in the lungs, in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
7. Gas exchange -The diffusion of gases from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, especially the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and its environment.
8. Lungs -A pair of organs, the principal parts of the respiratory system, at the front of the cavity of the chest in which the lungs transfer oxygen from the air into the blood, while carbon dioxide is removed from the blood and exhaled.
9. Diaphragm - A dome-shaped structure made up of muscle and connective tissue that separates the abdominal cavity from the chest and either draws air into the lungs or forces air out of them.
10. Respiration - the physiological process that enables animals to exchange carbon dioxide, the primary product of cellular respiration for fresh air (Oxygen)
11. Circulatory System - The system of organs and structures by which blood and lymph are circulated throughout the body.
12. Heart - The 4 chambered muscular organ that pumps blood through the body by contracting and relaxing.
13. Atrium -A chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it by muscular contraction into a ventricle.
14. Ventricle -The chamber of the heart that receives blood from the atria and pumps it by muscular contraction into the arteries.
15. Vein -Any of the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood toward the heart from the cells of the body.
16. Blood Pressure -The pressure of the blood in the vessels, especially the arteries, as it circulates through the body.
17. Plasma -The clear, yellowish fluid portion of blood or, lymph in which cells are suspended.
18. Platelets -Small, round cell fragments containing no nuclei that are found in the blood and help in the clotting of blood.
19. Red Blood Cell -A disk-shaped cell in the blood that contains hemoglobin, lacks a nucleus, and transports oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues.
20. White Blood Cell - Colorless cells in the blood that help combat infection.
21. Artery -Any of the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body's cells, tissues, and organs.
22. Capillary - Tiny blood vessels that connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins exchanging oxygen, metabolic waste products, and carbon dioxide between blood and tissue cells.
23. Pharynx - throat - it extends from the mouth and nasal cavity to to the larynx
24. Inhalation - the movement of air from the environment into the respiratory system of an animal
25. Exhalation - the movement of air from the respiratory system of an animal back into the enviroment.
1. Kidneys- remove urea and other wastes from the blood.
2. Nephron- tiny filtering factories that remove wastes from blood and produce urine. It is produced of tubes and capillaries.
3. Ureters- Urine flows from the kidneys into these two long narrow tubes.
4. Urinary bladder- A saclike muscular organ that stores urine.
5. Urethra- Urine leaves the body through a small tube.
6. Urine- Liquid that is produced in the kidneys and stored in the bladder.
7. Urea- A chemical that contains nitrogen waste and is filtered by the kidneys.
8. Liver- Breaks down proteins to produce urea.
9. Excretion- The removal process of wastes from the organs.
10. Respiration- The process in which oxygen and glucose undergo a complex series of chemical reaction inside cells. The waste product of respiration is carbon dioxide.
11. Excretion- The removal process of wastes from the organs.
12. Skin- It is our body’s largest organ.
13. Perspiration- Excreted by the skin containing water, salt, and urea.
14. Digestive System - The structures in the body that work together to transform the energy and materials in food into forms the body can use. It is a system responsible for the ingestion, digestion and absorption of food.
15. Esophagus – the tube that connects your mouth and your stomach
16. Stomach – A stretchy bag that holds your food after you eat. It helps break food into smaller pieces so your body can use it for energy and nutrition.
17. Small Intestine – A tube that is 20 feet long. It continues to digest food as it moves through the small intestine. It takes 4-8 hours for food to pass through.
18. Large Intestine – A tube that is 5 feet long. It gets waste from the small intestine. Waste stays in the large intestine for 10-12 hours.
19. Gall Bladder – A storage take for bile (a greenish-yellow liquid) that helps your body break down and use fats.
20. Pancreas –Helps digest food by breaking down sugars.
21. Epiglottis – A trapdoor that covers the trachea (windpipe) when you swallow to prevent food from entering.